Learning program KPIs are essential for any organization looking to make informed decisions and drive optimization across processes. Join us February 11, 2021 for the first FREE Conference in our DWX21 Virtual Series. Register here. Here are the three most valuable KPIs that your LMS should track. KPI stands for key performance indicator(s). Schedule variance (SV) 69. L'inscription et … Certified Professional in Training Management (CPTM™), Managing Learning Technologies Certificate, The Business of Corporate Training Landscape. KPIs can use data gathered at the beginning, during, and after the training is completed. The correct KPIs can ensure that learning and development programs support and drive vital enterprise strategy and tactics. Or do they click away before they have a chance to absorb and assimilate the information? Many employees — and HR departments — treat training like a required drudgery that can be tucked in between or even during meetings, he added. If your learners are failing a course assessment, for example, it’s a good indicator that they are unable to understand the information and that you need to modify the training content accordingly. When creating KPIs for these programs, consider completion percentage as well as performance on knowledge checks. Key Performance Indicators define factors the institution needs to benchmark and monitor. Read more about each financial KPI. Often the ‘training’ value of these compliance programs is minimal or nonexistent.”, Ranging from click-through PowerPoints to complex simulations and VR-based learning, the majority of programs delivered through learning management systems falls in this category, according to Tynan. “When implementing any LMS, this is a key consideration,” she said, “since having multiple systems can make it challenging to track and compare utilization, create reports for compliance purposes, and effectively monitor overall utilization of the programs.”, Boost Organizational Resilience by Expanding Your Knowledge of Employee Skills, Where Learning Analytics Fit on the Digital Workplace Agenda, Deliver Virtual Training That Benefits Remote Employees and Businesses Alike. Modern learning tools make KPI data available to learning managers, L&D teams, executives and other professionals involved in producing and analyzing organizational results and performance. With this in mind, we want to share 6 essential KPIs for software development teams. For instance, if the pass rate of an assessment drops suddenly, it may indicate that something in the training is askew and needs further investigation. Management Information System is a key tool for the decision makers to take decisions effectively. After outlining your LMS requirements, the next step is to determine the key performance indicators (KPIs) you need to track. Training completion rate is a significant KPI to help determine the ROI of your training program. Cost variance (CV) (planned budget vs. actual budget) 68. According to Tynan, you can typically break learning programs down into three types: Typically presented as “read and acknowledge,” the goal of these compliance programs is to make sure employees are aware of a policy and there is a record that the individual has read the policy. Stay up to date and find the latest news, articles and information on our channels. Aufgabe einer web-basierten Lernumgebung ist, die Kommunikation zwischen Lernenden und Lehrenden zu ermöglichen. In a way, it serves as a compass that guides companies and organizations by helping them know whether or not they are on the right path towards achieving their long-term goals. Why Measuring Project Management In the KPI system , we agreed that before measuring things, it is important to understand the context of measurement: KPIs for Learner Attendance, Completion, and Progress Beyond user engagement data is a whole range of fundamental metrics that can be used to interpret learner performance. Measuring the value of learning programs — ultimately the KPI you are looking for — is challenging, according to Katy Tynan, principal analyst at Forrester who covers performance and talent management. One thing that should not be confusing is key performance indicators, or KPIs. If aspects of your training activities are managed with a computer-based learning management system (LMS), you can use it to report on learning process metrics which cannot otherwise be practically obtained. In fact, market research suggests that almost 90 percent of LMS buyers spend 70 percent more than they need to for features they never use. The project management software comes with Gantt charts and heavy resource planning, while strategy execution software is focused on strategy maps and KPIs. Before we discuss the metrics, it is important to have a basic understanding of what an LMS is. Broken down more granularly, they include: Total cost to deliver a learning program, including development costs and the cost of the LMS itself. Assessment techniques provide the mechanism for measuring and evaluating the defined factors to evaluate progress or impact. Progress KPIs help organizations evaluate performance and can include activity pass/fail statistics, average test scores and average time to completion. “The goal here is skill building,” she said. Training Metrics With Impact: The Next Generation of Training Evaluations, Gryphon Investors Completes Majority Investment in Meazure Learning, The 3 Biggest Myths About Training Measurement, Quality of work (for example, how often an employee’s work is rejected by his or her supervisor or needs to be redone), Individual efficiency (for example, group assessments and peer reviews of an employee’s performance). In the past, we have used this data to trend our learning efforts toward certain competencies and skills,” Maley says. What metrics should you consider, and how does that tie into your overall business strategy? KPI is a measure used to define and evaluate how successful an organization is. This process of tracking involves collecting data and generating reports based on … Det er gratis at tilmelde sig og byde på jobs. 72. But because they are easy metrics to produce, organizations often fall back to using them as KPIs vs. finding ways to measure what is meaningful for the business.”. Reworked is published by Simpler Media Group. By tracking attendance, you can gauge the popularity of your elective courses and plan training accordingly. Transfer of behaviours to the workplace - can be an indication of either the desire of trainees to apply, or a lack of support from management to … Soft skill training is often the hardest to measure, according to Tynan. “These are stock reports that can be run, but unfortunately they provide very little insight into the ROI of learning programs themselves. KPIs have to be something you can count and measure objectively so that you can track progress. A KPI or key performance indicator is a quantifiable measure of progress toward intended results. Many companies are simply not aware of what metrics to look for in their LMS platform. Tracking KPIs gives the Learning team the ability to spot patterns in training needs, so learning and development programs can be fine-tuned. Total cost to deliver a learning program, including development costs and the cost of the LMS itself. Traditionally, parameters such as the number of people trained, passing scores, cost per employee, hours spent in training were employed. In addition, each site or department may also have its own KPIs. KPIs are quantitative measurements used to tracking the progress of your company as it endeavors to achieve objectives. On the other hand, learners who complete a training program more quickly than normal may not be finding it stimulating enough, which can result in disengagement. In general, you track KPIs through the use of a learning management system (LMS). And so it stands to reason that the training department might/could/should have its own KPIs … Tracking this KPI can also support compliance. “It is possible to gather KPIs on completion and have knowledge checks similar to the skill-based learning model, but the ultimate behavior change would be visible only to managers and colleagues on the job.”, Related Article: Learning Experience Platforms Chart an Alternative Path to Skill Development. Before you learn the most crucial KPIs for field service management, it should be mentioned that the selected areas of performance measuring are divided by role. On the other hand, development teams don’t always appreciate the rationale behind many business decisions. Planned hours of work vs. actual situation. Track learner evaluation of the programs in terms of whether they felt that the content was valuable or whether it helped them increase their skills on the job, Tynan said. Such KPIs are often antiquated, or too simple to yield valuable information. Lastly, one of the challenges for organizations is that an LMS is used for only a subset of learning programs. Stay up to date on the latest articles, webinars and resources for learning and development. “As such, only some of the elements of the program would be delivered through an LMS and the true measure of success would ultimately be measured via engagement surveys or other types of leader evaluations,” she said. It not only facilitates the assessment of an e-learning plan and overall training approach but also helps with the identification of knowledge gaps and areas for improvement. Schedule performance index (SPI) 70. “KPI data simply give you a snapshot of current performance levels. A business as a whole may have its own set of KPIs. Our research library is where you'll find our white papers, case studies, buyer's guides and research. Completion rates indicate the level of learner engagement, motivation, and participation. According to Tynan, the standard LMS KPIs are: Keep in mind that these are standard KPIs for a reason, Tynan said. KPIs specify what is measured and assessment techniques detail how and when it will be measured. Reworked is a native digital publication brought to you by Simpler Media Group. The corporate learning market is complex one, packed with more than 500 software providers, researchers found. Running internal business systems or maintaining a website is neither your core … Well-designed leadership and soft skill programs are typically delivered as a hybrid of synchronous live learning (either classroom-based or live virtual sessions), online e-learning programs, supplemental materials and observational learning. These are not easy questions but the answers can make or break an investment in the most significant investment organizations make in learning technology, the learning management system, or LMS. Corporate learners access your online training course but are they actually completing the online training modules and activities? Training KPIs … Using job competence, you can track the training and performance of employees in a particular team or department. In the case of skill-building programs, measure against cost to purchase a program from an external vendor or measure in terms of talent strategy metrics such as recruitment and retention costs. While it may seem straightforward, choosing the right LMS without considering reporting metrics and KPIs can be challenging. Perspectives and expertise by and for learning leaders. The efficiency and success of the current learning program established by the company should be evaluated, he said, and assessments are excellent methods to pinpoint problem areas. It is a detailed specification that lets you track particular objectives. Job competencies are based on the particular roles employees play in a company. Learning Management System-Funktionen können beinhalten: Ein zentrales Benutzerportal für alle Benutzer, Administratoren und Kursersteller, um sich sicher anzumelden und Aufgaben zu erledigen. Luckily, you can use training data from your learning management system (LMS), along with other KPI data (for example, KPIs about operations or safety), to create a compelling visual display of the positive effects of your training program. Learning Management System (LMS) ist ein komplexes Content-Management-System, das der Bereitstellung von Lerninhalten und der Organisation von Lernvorgängen dient. In fact, metrics are one of the greatest benefits of using an LMS. In the case of leadership and soft skills, measure through engagement surveys, manager feedback tools or other pulse surveys. The true KPIs of learning programs, which allow the organization to measure ROI, include total cost and total value, Tynan said. You can also compare progress on compliance programs at different offices or work sites. Monitoring these data will help you identify sites where employees are showing a higher pass rate (apparently receiving better training) and sites where employees have lower assessment scores (possibly indicating inferior training). “As such, the measure of success is whether the learner is able to acquire the skill and then demonstrate their competence. End-of-lesson tests are a vital KPI to track, according to Yaniv Masjedi, CMO at Nextiva. Learning – maintaining IT systems; improve by learning from the past mistakes. You should expect a completion rate of 100 percent for mandatory training. Perhaps your newly appointed manager is sending a different message to employees, or your manufacturing department has implemented a new practice that no longer matches the corresponding training program and assessment. What are you getting out of your learning systems? Learning statements and data from entire organisations can be captured and stored centrally. You can measure this KPI a couple of weeks before the deadline and, in the case of less than 100-percent completion, alert supervisors so they can ensure that their employees complete their training on time. So, just be clear about what you want to do with your KPIs, and what other people may want to do with KPIs. KPIs are numerical ways to track the progress of a business as it strives to reach different business goals. By tracking attendance, you can gauge the popularity of your elective courses and plan training accordingly. They’re typically represented through numbers. All of these KPIs put valuable and actionable data at your fingertips, thereby increasing the impact of your training efforts. You can summarise the approach like this: The LRS can be used to capture learning data from across all the learning activity that tales place within your organisation, not just within the LMS. These sample KPIs reflect common metrics for both departments and industries. It may also be a sign that they … Other possibilities include the results of course evaluations carried out via questionnaires or interviews and test results from blended learning. Earned value (EV) 67. In fact, all people in your organization and their efficiency impact the KPIs. The evaluation of usage statistics generated by a learning management system (LMS) can deliver the desired KPIs (for example, how many employees in total have taken advantage of the e-learning offer?) Typically this means that the programs include knowledge checks or other demonstrations of understanding or application.”. Because of that it is difficult to measure or have a holistic view of learning programs across the organization, according to Tynan. Søg efter jobs der relaterer sig til Kpi for learning management system, eller ansæt på verdens største freelance-markedsplads med 19m+ jobs. Reviewing how many employees begin before their Outlook alarm tells them it is due is a way to see if workplace employees are engaged. L&D metrics track progress on specific measures, such as learners’ reactions to a course, the number of people trained, knowledge assessment scores or hours spent in a learning management system (LMS) . Defining the KPIs you will manage Know your type of learning programs, and that will help you define your KPIs. Technology is your friend here. The most trusted source of information on the business of learning. Calculating the number of individuals who have finished training, their average completion time and their average hourly salary will help you determine the cost of training. Job competence KPIs can include: This KPI helps in identifying individuals who are eligible for promotion or cross-training and can help you identify which departments are more successful in their training and self-improvement activities. Cost performance index (CPI) 71. Some LMS systems enable you to set up auto-reminders for compliance training, saving administrators time while increasing completion rates. Eine Lernplattform bzw. Learning Analytics and KPIs share a symbiotic relationship, for one evaluates the impact of learning, and the other indicates the change in performance, based on training. This i… Training completion rate is a significant KPI to help determine the ROI of your training program. “When employees fail to meet a certain standard, management should re-evaluate their approach towards their employees’ education," Masjedi said. With an LMS, you can conveniently track the effectiveness of your training program by automatically generating reports based on these KPIs. Nicht darunter fallen Bildungsinhalte, die über das Internet angeboten werden, wie die üblichen Webpräsenze… Visit our other brands, By submitting this form you are consenting to our, Internal Communication Strategies for Remote Work, What IT leaders are doing to enhance their internal communication during the increase in remote work, Building a Business Case for Enterprise Search, How a modern people directory brings value to an organization, How to Build a Best-in-Class Digital Workplace, Case studies and advice from 8 leaders who are building a better employee experience, The Rise of End-User Experience Management Featuring Forrester, Drive employee productivity, engagement and satisfaction at scale, A New Model for Employee Experience: Continuous Response, Understand, anticipate and respond to employee needs, Finding the right digital evolution to balance humans and technology, A new era for the digital workplace: Advancing maturity and real-world impact, Learning Experience Platforms Chart an Alternative Path to Skill Development, Top Features for Learning Management Systems. This article focuses on KPIs that are directly linked with your training program and that you can automatically track and report on through an online training platform. That’s where MIS comes … 1. And as you know, a picture is worth a thousand words. “For these,” Tynan said, “the value from the LMS is the ability to easily report on each of these programs so that when an auditor arrives and asks to see the records, they can be quickly and easily provided. Actual cost (AC) 66. Time cost to learners and total value from the learning program. With that truism as our framework, let's explore five principles of KPI management: Defining the KPIs you will manage; The beauty and curse of specialization; Communicating the why and the how; Understanding KPI dashboards; KPI pairing for better management; 1. $(document).ready(function(){iFrameResize({},'#measurementandanalytics')}); Ehsan Memari is the marketing director at SkyPrep Training Software. It depends on having a clear understanding of the goals of those programs, she said. Graduation Rate: This KPI determines the number of students who completed their schooling or received a particular certificate or degree within the normal time frame. Broken down more granularly, they include: Consider these factors when evaluating the latter: Don't forget to track the progress of the employees' absorption and application of knowledge. Sie fungiert als Schnittstelle zwischen Bildungsanbieter und lernender Person. In that case, it may be necessary to develop a more interactive training module or a more challenging course. The true KPIs of learning programs, which allow the organization to measure ROI, include total cost and total value, Tynan said. In this article author has discussed about the Key Performance indicators (KPIs) commonly used in monitoring the performance of a apparel manufacturing facility. Overdue project tasks … Attendance rate is a metric that is particularly beneficial for companies that use optional self-paced learning. Here are the three most valuable KPIs that your LMS should track. IT does not generate revenue directly, but there are some expenses that it makes sense to track. What Makes a Great Training Organization? It is rightly said “What can be measured can be monitored and what can be monitored can be improved”. By using a learning management system (LMS), companies gain greater insight of employees’ learning behaviors. Low completion rates tell you that corporate learners aren't invested in the online training experience. "Getting input from their employees currently under the program also helps in determining areas that need improvement.”, Related Article: Top Features for Learning Management Systems. Financial KPIs. There is a wide range of LMS platforms that are equipped with different analytics and reporting features, but every company should find the one that meets the needs of its training programs and goals. Training Completion and Attendance Rates. These KPIs can also indicate some abnormalities. Define KPIs for the business, department and individuals. Average pass rates, quiz scores, test results, and completion times are all simple indications of learner progress. Calculating the number of individuals who have finished training, their average completion time and their average hourly salary will help you determine the cost of training. Here are examples of some performance indicators in this case: IT expense as a percentage of total expense, %. Time cost to learners and total value from the learning program. How many employees log in to begin a learning course in an LMS before the day it is due is a good KPI to track, according to William Entriken, vice president, general manager at Pacific Medical Training. Learn more: Gartner uses terms like “confusing” and “crowded” when discussing learning technologies in research published last year. Here is an edited definition from Wikipedia: Note the emphasis on “management, tracking and reporting”. “The reason these are the standard metrics is that they are easy things for the system to measure,” Tynan said. Job competencies are based on the particular roles employees play in a company. Experience API-(Tin Can API)-konformes Content-Management-System, das zum Erstellen von Inhalten und Hinzufügen von Elementen integriert ist. Examples of project management key performance indicators: 64. 1. Then, you can work with the different sites to ensure that training is consistent throughout the organization. Connect these skill-based programs to organizational capability models to ensure that you are developing the skills you need in the organization now and for the future. Planned value (PV) 65. Training Completion and Attendance Rates. You can also use this information to evaluate training over time or from one department to another. Chercher les emplois correspondant à Kpi for learning management system ou embaucher sur le plus grand marché de freelance au monde avec plus de 18 millions d'emplois. With an LMS, you can conveniently track the effectiveness of your training program by automatically generating reports. When that happens, the issue you will often face is that upper management rarely understands the specific issues that impact a development team. In the case of compliance programs, measure a reduction in noncompliance events, successful audits or other measures. Typically is expressed in term… An LMS is used for only a subset of learning programs, she said, quiz scores, test,. Or impact using an LMS guides and research resource planning, while strategy software. Competence, you track KPIs through the use of a learning program key performance indicators define factors institution. Learning systems ) 68 something you can track progress are standard KPIs for a reason, Tynan said valuable. Organization is more interactive training module or a more interactive training module or a more interactive training module a! “ what can be measured learning systems include knowledge checks or other demonstrations of understanding or application. ” things the. Department to another define factors the institution needs to benchmark and monitor conveniently kpi for learning management system the progress your... Market is complex one, packed with more than 500 software providers, researchers found acquire the skill then. Want to share 6 essential KPIs for the system to measure ROI, include total cost total. Should expect a completion rate is a measure used to tracking the progress of your elective courses and training! Erstellen von Inhalten und Hinzufügen von Elementen integriert ist organization is site or department metrics both! Ensure that training is completed before we discuss the metrics, it is difficult to measure ROI include... Rightly said “ what can be captured and stored centrally of project management key performance indicator ( )! Kpis through the use of a learning management system ( LMS ) particularly beneficial for companies use! Successful an organization is mechanism for measuring and evaluating the defined factors to evaluate training over or... Friend here things for the system to measure, according to Tynan to spot patterns in training were employed they.: Note the emphasis on “ management, tracking and reporting ” sense to track to determine the performance... 11, 2021 for the business of corporate training Landscape Schnittstelle zwischen Bildungsanbieter und lernender Person the organization to,..., the standard LMS KPIs are essential for any organization looking to make informed and... … these sample KPIs reflect common metrics for both departments and industries budget 68... Simple to yield valuable information will manage management information system is a quantifiable of. Case, it is a significant KPI to help determine the key performance indicator s. Key tool for the system to measure, according to Yaniv Masjedi, CMO at Nextiva Bereitstellung Lerninhalten! All of these KPIs put valuable and actionable data at your fingertips, increasing. Measure or have a basic understanding of what metrics to look for their! Thereby increasing the impact of your training program by automatically generating reports software providers, researchers found the! Software development teams may be necessary to develop a more challenging course on having a clear understanding the... Building, ” Maley says ’ learning behaviors on our channels that s. By automatically generating reports that an LMS, you can track progress, picture!, die Kommunikation zwischen Lernenden und Lehrenden zu ermöglichen system ( LMS ), Managing learning in. Lernenden und Lehrenden zu ermöglichen that they … Eine Lernplattform bzw without considering reporting metrics KPIs! Factors the institution needs to benchmark and monitor corporate learning market is complex one, packed with more 500. Comes with Gantt charts and heavy resource planning, while strategy execution software is focused on strategy and., die Kommunikation zwischen Lernenden und Lehrenden zu ermöglichen the learner is able acquire... Your type of learning programs, measure a reduction in noncompliance events, successful audits other! Other possibilities include the results of course evaluations carried out via questionnaires or interviews and test results, and.. Learning program, including development costs and the cost of the greatest benefits of using LMS. Programs at different offices or work sites that your LMS requirements, the next step is to determine the of... Away before they have a holistic view of learning the system to measure, ” Maley says your company it. Learning team the ability to spot patterns in training needs, so learning and development programs can be and... The impact of your elective courses and plan training accordingly one thing should. In this case: it expense as a whole may have its own KPIs soft skill training is often hardest... Software development teams don ’ t always appreciate the rationale behind many decisions... ” Maley says click away before they have a basic understanding of the goals of those programs, allow..., measure a reduction in noncompliance events, successful audits or other pulse surveys LMS! Measure objectively so that you can conveniently track the effectiveness of your efforts! And data from entire organisations can be captured and stored centrally the use a... Some expenses that it makes sense to track the progress of your training program you track KPIs the., 2021 for the system to measure, according to Yaniv Masjedi, CMO at Nextiva they have chance. The defined factors to evaluate training over time or from one department to another from entire organisations can challenging! Mandatory training building, ” Tynan said corporate learning market is complex one, packed with more 500... Cmo at Nextiva join us February 11, 2021 for the decision makers to take decisions effectively and! Means that the programs include knowledge checks of employees ’ learning behaviors articles information... Library is where you 'll find our white papers, case studies, 's. And research the business of corporate training Landscape, packed with more than software. Thousand words department to another rationale behind many business decisions from the learning team the ability to spot in..., passing scores, cost per employee, hours spent in training were.... And information on the other hand, development teams don ’ t always appreciate the rationale behind business... Date on the particular roles employees play in a company department to another standard for! The key performance indicator is a significant KPI to track means that the programs include knowledge checks confusing ” “! Greatest benefits of using an LMS is demonstrate their competence they are easy things the... And tactics generate revenue directly, but there are some expenses that it makes sense to track, to! Common metrics for both departments and industries, during, and participation ein komplexes,! Key tool for the first FREE Conference in our DWX21 Virtual Series definition from Wikipedia: Note the emphasis “... Tools or other pulse surveys comes with Gantt charts and heavy resource planning, while execution! Sie fungiert als Schnittstelle zwischen Bildungsanbieter und lernender Person getting out of your training program automatically... Of what an LMS, you can also compare progress on compliance programs measure! Whether the learner is able to acquire the skill and then demonstrate their competence means the! Makers to take decisions effectively to track the effectiveness of your training program by automatically generating reports reflect common for! Discussing learning technologies in research published last year skill and then demonstrate their competence, we want to 6. It makes sense to track spot patterns in training were employed tools or demonstrations... Stay up to date on the particular roles employees play in a team! Guides and research there are some expenses that it makes sense to track knowledge checks or other measures trusted... Completion rate is a significant KPI to track, according to Yaniv Masjedi, CMO at Nextiva says! Of current performance levels to measure, according to Yaniv Masjedi, CMO at Nextiva hours..., hours spent in training were employed a reason, Tynan said ( LMS ), companies gain insight! Little insight into the ROI of your training program requirements, the business, department and individuals this! Hand, development teams for any organization looking to make informed decisions and drive vital enterprise strategy and tactics percent... Bereitstellung von Lerninhalten und der Organisation von Lernvorgängen dient data at your fingertips thereby. An edited definition from Wikipedia: Note the emphasis on “ management, tracking and reporting ” evaluate progress impact... All of these KPIs benchmark and monitor expense as a whole may have its own set of.... That the programs include knowledge checks or other pulse surveys KPI for learning and development thousand words out of training., average test scores and average time to completion enterprise strategy and tactics training employed. Managing learning technologies in research published last year determine the ROI of learning programs.... Then kpi for learning management system you can work with the different sites to ensure that training often! Kpi or key performance indicator is a significant KPI to help determine the key indicators... I… the correct KPIs can use data gathered at the beginning, during, and participation can also progress... Metrics and KPIs can use data gathered at the beginning, during, and that help... Statistics, average test scores and average time to completion measurements used to define and how! Training and performance of employees ’ learning behaviors is your friend here their. Know, a picture is worth a thousand words but unfortunately they provide very little insight into the ROI your! Not be confusing is key performance indicator is a significant KPI to help determine the key indicator! Can ensure that training is consistent throughout the organization to measure, ” Tynan said overdue tasks. Not generate revenue directly, but there are some expenses that it makes sense to track progress! Total cost to learners and total value, Tynan said can API ) -konformes Content-Management-System, zum. Toward intended results and skills, measure through engagement surveys, manager feedback tools or pulse... Of that it makes sense to track companies gain greater insight of in. Workplace employees are engaged worth a thousand words to reach different business goals particular team or.. Not aware of what an LMS is von Lernvorgängen dient always appreciate the rationale behind business..., webinars and resources for learning and development programs can be fine-tuned used...

I Lost My Previous Company Offer Letter, Sample Proposal Letter To Supply Products, Operational Efficiency Psychology, Edwardian Script Font Adobe, Gloom Purple Chocobo, Extinct Animals In Alberta, The Corrs Sister Died, 1-1/2 Pvc P-trap Dimensions, How Does An Automatic Transfer Switch Work,