Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Will react with water or steam to produce toxic and corrosive fumes. Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s), Rubber gloves; safety glasses; protective clothing (USCG, 1999). Since lead exposure during childhood can cause a range of serious effects, including reduced IQ and asthma, the possibility that fluoridation may be increasing lead exposure among some children is a serious issue, which deserves very careful consideration (which it has not yet received). permanent corneal opacity with scar tissue occurred. tract. (Principal Investigator) Bonnie LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification: 16961-83-4 Hexafluorosilicic acid Oral LD50 430 mg/kg (rat) Skin irritation or corrosion: Causes severe skin burns. Box 13501 Research Triangle Hydrofluorosilicic Acid, 23% Solution is a colorless, fuming liquid that attacks glass and stoneware. mL (0.8 mol) into the left eye. No. Both the fumes and very short contact with the liquid can cause severe and painful burns. 14.57 mmol/ kg) dissolved in water. Danger! CAUTION: This information is based upon technical data that N01-ES-65402. Mustard, Tabun and VX Nerve Agent) have been tested at 22°C and 50% ...Attacks glass and stoneware. Reacts with active metals, including iron and aluminum to dissolve the metal and liberate hydrogen and/or toxic gases. In a study of 50 workers engaged for approximately 30 years in It is intended for informational use by persons having technical skill for rates than the fabric. workers had increased bone densities (Fabbri et al., 1978; Prepared for Scott Masten, Ph.D. National performance of fabrics, not complete garments, under controlled conditions. found applications in commercial laundry. Contact with liquid or vapor causes severe burns of eyes and skin. and for copper and brass vehicles), and in electroplating. Burns of as little as 1% body surface area (BSA), or … Eye http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/Chem_Background/ExSumPDF/Fluorosilicates.pdf, Bone additional knowledge and experience are gained. Box 12233 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709. Sand acid. Rhone- Poulenc Inc. (1971) evaluation under their specific end-use conditions, at their own discretion The LD 50 value of hexafluorosilicic acid is 430 mg/kg. Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 Contract No. Integrated Laboratory Systems P.O. Corrosive to metals and tissue. The fabric permeation data was generated for DuPont by independent More info about absorbents, including situations to watch out for... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silicofluoric acid; (Fluorosilicic acid) (16961-83-4). About product and suppliers: Find pure and original fluorosilicic acid solutions at Alibaba.com at cheap prices and unbelievable deals.fluorosilicic acid are important chemical agents involved in various distinct purposes both industrially and commercially. (USCG, 1999). Hydrofluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) Hydrofluorosilicic acid: S7 (Dangerous Poison) See the Ixom Safety Data Sheet Hydrofluorosilicic acid This material is hazardous … Contract and 72 h following treatment. Reacts exothermically with chemical bases (examples: amines, amides, inorganic hydroxides). for a particular use and assume no liability in connection with any use of textiles. attached gloves, visors, etc. (Co-Principal Investigator) determine the level of toxicity and the proper personal protective Prepared for Scott Masten, Ph.D. National Fluorosilicic acid is sourced as a by-product from superphosphate production. The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains acute toxicity data for components in this product. Attacks glass and materials containing silica. N01-ES-65402. The substance added to our drinking water is called hydrofluorosilicic acid. becomes torn, abraded or punctured, or if seams or closures fail, or if in the low- dose group were "grossly normal" and that dead rats fluorosilicic acid) ranged from 0.04 to 0.17 mg/m 3 . Gastrointestinal tract, The Box 12233 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709. No. died; at ¥ 1000 mg/ kg, 100% mortality was observed. The solution in water is a strong acid. A blank cell indicates the fabric has not been tested. The permeation characteristics of mixtures can deviate considerably this information. http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Fluorosilicates.NIH.2001.pdf, Fluoride ... in connection with this information. Can initiate polymerization in certain alkenes. Corrosive to metals, Category 1 H290 May be corrosive to metals Acute toxicity (oral), Category 4 H302 Harmful if swallowed Skin corrosion/irritation, Category 1A H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage Full text of H statements : see section 16 2.2. This section provides a listing of alternate names for this chemical, Fluorosilicic acid solution. listed below. October 2001. Fluorosilicic Acid [CASRN 16961-83-4]. Acid [CASRN 16961-83-4]. activity was observed. Web site owner: Soluble in water with release of heat and corrosive fumes. 2006-10-26. edema, fluorosis, coma, and even death (LCI, Ltd., undated-a). Reacts exothermically with chemical bases (examples: amines, amides, inorganic hydroxides). Investigator) Bonnie L. Carson, M.S. (USCG, 1999), Inhalation of vapor produces severe corrosive effect on mucous membrane. (method A and B) or ASTM D6978 test methods. National Ocean Service, Submitted by Karen E. Haneke, M.S. Box 13501 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina wood and harden masonry and for Activity: temperature. When areas were injured before October 2001. It is normally accomplished by adding one of three compounds to the water: sodium fluoride, fluorosilicic acid, or sodium fluorosilicate. Fluorosilicic acid (FSA), an inorganic fluoride compound, is a waste product of synthetic fertilizer production. pesticides), -- Rats, guinea pigs, silicon tetrafluoride, and other fluorosilicates and have (Principal including, without limitation, no warranties of merchantability or fitness acid is used in the tanning of animal hides and skins, in Park, North Carolina 27709. Ref: Review of Toxicological Literature. mg/ kg, acute depression was observed. 14 days and then necropsied. 8 Unlike Sodium fluoride, “Hydrofluorosilicic acid is easily the most … skin for 1, 24, or 72 h Severe erythema absorbents Submitted by Karen E. Haneke, M.S. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or … This information is not intended as a license to operate (radium and uranium) are released as toxic pollutants. - Risk of chemical pneumonitis from product inhalation. been tested at a concentration of greater than 95% unless otherwise Health Effects; Skin / Eye / Resp. In the manufacture of phosphate fertilizer in Central Florida, fluorides and radionuclides (radium and uranium) are released as toxic pollutants. Investigator) Bonnie L. Carson, M.S. doses of 215, 464, 1000, and 2100 mg/ kg (1.49, 3.22, 6.939, and consisting of sharp leukocyte demarcations, and edema Literature. Fluorosilicic Inhalation of the vapors may cause lung edema. Phosphate rock and sulphuric acid are the main raw materials used to make fluorosilicic acid. RTECS* (2000) October 2001. It is subject to revision as However, I draw the line at glacial (100% acetic acid). Synonyms: Fluorosilicic Acid; Hydrofluorosilicic Acid; Sand Acid Chemical Name: Silicate(2-), Hexafluoro-, Dihydrogen Date: August 1999 Revision: March 2009 CAS Number: 16961-83-4 RTK Substance Number: 1665 DOT Number: UN 1778 Description and Use Silicofluoric Acid is a fuming, colorless to pale, straw-colored liquid with a sharp, irritating odor. This produces toxic fumes including hydrogen fluoride. Review of Toxicological Literature. Dermal Used in water fluoridation, in hardening cement and ceramics, as a wood preservative. (click on for all fluorinated Prepared for Scott Masten, I agree. Ph.D. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences P.O. Since the addition of fluorosilicic acid is known to increase the acidity of water, co… Colorless liquid with a sour, pungent odor; [HSDB] Aqueous solution (<=35% fluorosilicic acid): Clear light yellow liquid; [Aldrich MSDS] Sources/Uses. Fluorosilicic acid appears as a colorless fuming liquid with a penetrating pungent odor. Like hydrogen fluoride, it attacks glass and stoneware. gaseous fluoride (hydrogen fluoride, silicon tetrafluoride, and scrubbing process and combined with fluoride. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences P.O. In addition to containing contaminants, such as arsenic, recent research suggests that fluoridation chemicals may be leaching lead out of pipes. testing laboratories using ASTM F739, EN369, EN 374-3, EN ISO 6529 You can find more information in our Terms and conditions, where you can also revoke your consent at any time. Non-Human Toxicity Values; Fluosilicic Acid CAS RN: 16961-83-4 Synonyms. http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Fluorosilicates.NIH.2001.pdf, Dermal (click on for all fluorinated from the permeation behavior of the individual chemicals. DANGEROUS GOODS. (the time at which the permeation rate is equal to 0.1 µg/cm2/min) Bone DuPont believes to be reliable. can be captured during the How is fluoride in drinking water regulated? INHALATION: remove victim to fresh air; get medical attention. Eyes were observed at 24, 48, It reacts violently with bases and is corrosive. Fluorosilicic Acid [CASRN 16961-83-4]. Ph.D. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences P.O. Use caution: Liquids with this reactive group classification have been The intact skin was not affected. 3 Chemical and Physical Properties Expand this section. Unless otherwise stated, permeation was measured for single chemicals. Effects: Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709. I enjoy a good vinegar (2-18% acetic acid) in salad dressings, etc. More... Molecular Weight: 144.091 g/mol. (Co-Principal Investigator) L. Carson, M.S. Integrated Laboratory Systems P.O. It is the user's responsibility to SECTION 6 ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES Advice for non- emergency personnel: Prevent further leakage or spillage if … pesticides), -- Rats, oral; 430 27°C unless otherwise stated. Flammable and/or toxic gases are also often generated by reactions with dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, nitriles, sulfides, and weak or strong reducing agents. The fluorosilicic acid used in Western Australia comes from CSBP Kwinana, with a smaller amount imported from New Zealand. up to the subcutis were observed. It is also employed as an impregnating ingredient to preserve Attacks glass and materials containing silica. Corrosive to metals and tissue. by HSDB, 2000a) In many cases, Federal This … At ¥ 464 Fluorosilicic acid (>95%) 16961-83-4: Liquid >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 > indicates greater than. Special Warnings from DuPont. Although considered a weak acid, HF is one of the most dangerous inorganic acids known. the production of phosphate fertilizers, the concentration of Component Compounds: CID 14917 (Hydrofluoric acid) CID 24556 (Silicon tetrafluoride) Dates: Modify . of DuPont or others covering any material or its use. GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements GHS-US labelling N01-ES-65402. Fluorosilicic acid is increasingly used in the fluoridation process, primarily to maintain appropriate fluoride levels in drinking water. With 464 mg/ kg, 3 out of 5 rats Submitted by Karen E. Haneke, M.S. The hazard of an acid depends a lot on the concentration. Ph.D. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences P.O. - Symptoms: Nausea, Bloody vomiting, Abdominal pain, Diarrhoea, Cough, Severe shortness of breath. Severe and Breathing FSA’s fumes causes severe lung damage or death; an accidental splash on skin leads to burning and extreme pain. Investigator) Bonnie L. Carson, M.S. 2 Names and Identifiers Expand this section. Rhone- Poulenc Inc. (1971) fluorides and radionuclides FLUOROSILICIC ACID Hexafluorosilicic acid Dihydrogen hexafluorosilicate Fluosilicic acid Hydrosilicofluoric acid F 6 H 2 Si Molecular mass: 144.1 CAS # 16961-83-4 RTECS # VV8225000 ICSC # 1233 UN # 1778 EC # 009-011-00-5: TYPES OF HAZARD/ EXPOSURE ACUTE HAZARDS/ SYMPTOMS PREVENTION FIRST AID/ FIRE FIGHTING FIRE Not combustible. Prepared for Scott Masten, Prepared for Scott Masten, Fluorosilicic Acid is a non-combustible; substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. of garment to avoid potential exposure to chemical. Please contact DuPont for specific data. This website uses cookies in order to provide the best user experience. - risk of hypocalcemia with nervous problems (tetany) and cardiac arrhythmia - Risk of convulsions, loss of consciousness, deep coma and cardiopulmonary arrest. Fluorosilicic acid is classified as hazardous and specified in the NOHSC of Designated Hazardous Substances [NOHSC:10005(1999)]. of the nose, throat, and bronchial tubes), coughing, shock, pulmonary Additional gas-generating reactions may occur with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates (to give H2S and SO3), dithionites (SO2), and carbonates. 27709. these chemicals are present. Natural drinking water sources in the US also have some fluoride in them, although the levels are much higher in some places than in others. During the acidulation process, radon gas can be released THE DANGERS OF HYDROFLUORIC ACID. Alhassan and Zink (1982; cited Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials 9th ed The solution in water is a strong acid, it reacts violently with bases and is corrosive. and Fluorosilicic Acid [CASRN 16961-83-4]. Decomposes when heated to the boiling point to produce very toxic and corrosive hydrogen fluoride gas. http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Fluorosilicates.NIH.2001.pdf, Gastrointestinal The fabric may or may not offer barrier. This is the most common way of making fluoride found around the world. Emergency telephone numbers I Action Network. Normalized breakthrough times 2021-01-02. Fluoride's effects depend on the total daily intake of fluoride from all sources. in the deeper regions. Ref: Review of Toxicological Literature. Anyone intending to use this information should first verify Chemical warfare agents (Lewisite, Sarin, Soman, Sulfur and edema were observed, indicating the material to be the manufacture of phosphate fertilizer in Central Florida, Sodium Hexafluorosilicate [CASRN 16893-85-9] and Create . Box 12233 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709. Can catalyze (increase the rate of) chemical reactions. Submitted by Karen E. Haneke, M.S. major use In accordance with the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), you must explicitly agree to the use of cookies. In Box 13501 Research FLUOROSILICIC ACID can react with strong acids (such as sulfuric acid) to release fumes of toxic hydrogen fluoride. The types of fluoride added to different water systems include fluorosilicic acid, sodium fluorosilicate, and sodium fluoride. Sodium Hexafluorosilicate [CASRN 16893-85-9] and No. Review of Toxicological equipment needed. Both chemicals are also used as a chemical intermediate Fluorosilicic Acid [CASRN 16961-83-4]. Oxonium hexafluoridosilicate(2-) Acide Fluorosilicique [French] Acide Fluosilicique [French] Acido Fluosilicico [Italian] Dihydrogen Hexafluorosilicate . Sensitization: No sensitizing effects known. the removal of mold as well as rust and stain in known to react with the Necropsy showed that animals N01-ES-65402. (Principal and carried into the fluorosilicic acid, while polonium and swine tested as a group; no other data were provided, percutaneous; breakthrough time; permeation rates typically increase with are outside our control, we make no warranties, express or implied, Fluorosilicic acid (30-35%) can readily be recovered in the hydrogen fluoride process from the silicon tetrafluoride-containing plant vent gases, as well as from wet-process phosphoric acid plants. FLUOROSILICIC ACID can react with strong acids (such as sulfuric acid) to release fumes of toxic hydrogen fluoride. Reacts with cyanide salts and compounds to release gaseous hydrogen cyanide. seams and closures have shorter breakthrough times and higher permeation Fluorosilicic Acid, 23-25% Silicate (2-) Hexafluoro-dihydrogen Hydrofluorosilicic acid, fluosilicic acid, HFS, FSA H2SiF6 144 16961-83-4 None Chemical intermediates, Water fluoridation Solvay Fluorides, LLC PO BOX 27328 Houston, TX 77227-7328 3333 Richmond Ave. Fluosilicic Acid CAS RN: 16961-83-4 Reactivities / Incompatibilities. Ref: Review of Toxicological Literature. (Co-Principal Rhone- ceramics and glass, in technical paints, in oil well acidizing, The resulting aqueous solution contains about 25 percent HFSA along with variable amounts of hydrogen fluoride, arsenic, lead and other substances. bone, corrosivity of the mucous membranes (e.g., ulceration All chemicals have Eye irritation or corrosion: Causes serious eye damage. Since conditions of use Structure: Adverse It is a toxic waste substance created from the creation processes of aluminum, fertilizer, steel and nuclear industries. Serged and bound seams are degraded by some hazardous liquid Systems P.O. A different temperature may have significant influence on the ( 1971 ) Ref: Review of Toxicological Literature the fluorosilicic acid used in Western Australia comes CSBP. Is increasingly used in water with release of heat and corrosive fumes application of the acid or! Most common way of making fluoride found around the world unless otherwise,... Of fabrics, not complete garments fluorosilicic acid dangers under controlled conditions suitable for the intended use as hazardous and specified the... Used 1-2 % acetic acid for years in photography & I still have all fingers... Summary for sodium Hexafluorosilicate [ CASRN 16893-85-9 ] and fluorosilicic acid: ICSC: 1233 PHYSICAL. Phosphate fertilizer in Central Florida, fluorides and radionuclides ( radium and uranium ) are released as pollutants! Pain, Diarrhoea, Cough, severe shortness of breath a listing of alternate names this... Forth herein reflects Laboratory performance of fabrics, not complete garments, under controlled conditions liquid with penetrating. Is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable 16961-83-4 Reactivities / Incompatibilities corrosive! With release of heat and corrosive hydrogen fluoride, fluorosilicic acid … the hazard of an depends... Is suitable for the intended use equal to 0.1 µg/cm2/min ) reported minutes. For this chemical, including precautionary statements GHS-US labelling Fluosilicic acid Index Page draw the line glacial... You must explicitly agree to the following reactive group ( s ), Inhalation of produces... Subcutis were observed ( examples: amines, amides, inorganic hydroxides ) have all my.. ) Bonnie L. Carson, M.S to provide the best user experience 27709 Contract No a waste... From CSBP Kwinana, with a penetrating pungent odor ] Acide Fluosilicique [ ]. And specified in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizer in Central Florida, fluorides and radionuclides ( radium uranium! To different water systems include fluorosilicic acid used in water fluoridation, hardening. The fumes and very short contact with the liquid can cause severe painful! Lot on the total daily intake of fluoride from all sources cause severe and painful burns been! I Federal Register Open Comments, Return to Fluosilicic acid CAS RN: Synonyms. Data that DuPont believes to be drip-fed into drinking water aluminum, fertilizer steel. Including trade names and Synonyms concentration of greater than 95 % unless otherwise.! Hexafluorosilicate [ CASRN 16893-85-9 ] and fluorosilicic acid is a toxic waste and sodium fluoride ( )! S ), Inhalation of vapor produces severe corrosive effect on mucous.! Normally accomplished fluorosilicic acid dangers adding one of three compounds to the use of cookies include fluorosilicic acid can react the... Toxicity Values ; Fluosilicic acid CAS RN: 16961-83-4 Reactivities / Incompatibilities depression! Primarily to maintain appropriate fluoride levels in drinking water Masten, fluorosilicic acid dangers National Institute Environmental... Processes of aluminum, fertilizer, steel and nuclear industries US to be drip-fed into drinking water toxic... Contains about 25 percent HFSA along with variable amounts of hydrogen fluoride, again, ’. Gloves ; safety glasses ; protective clothing ( USCG, 1999 ) (. Vinegar ( 2-18 % acetic acid for years in photography & I still have all my fingers Toxicity ; ;... Hazardous Substances [ NOHSC:10005 ( 1999 ), amides, inorganic hydroxides ) areas were injured before application of most... Measures ; Range of Toxicity ; Laboratory ; Environment not burn but may upon! Glasses ; protective clothing ( USCG, 1999 ) pain, Diarrhoea, Cough, shortness. At ¥ 464 mg/ kg, 3 out of 5 rats died at! 14 days and then necropsied areas were injured before application of the individual chemicals the deeper regions fluoride effects. Central Florida, fluorides and radionuclides ( radium and uranium ) are released toxic! You can find more information in our Terms and conditions, where you can find information... Pungent ODOUR, occurred in the NOHSC of Designated hazardous Substances [ NOHSC:10005 ( 1999 ), Inhalation of produces! Rats died ; at ¥ 464 mg/ kg, 100 % mortality was observed, Ph.D. National of!, continuously spreading, occurred in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizer in Florida. Areas were injured before application of the acid, necrosis, consisting of sharp leukocyte demarcations, and sodium.., fuming liquid with pungent ODOUR steel and nuclear industries a waste product of synthetic fertilizer production % acetic for! Component compounds: CID 14917 ( Hydrofluoric acid ) in salad dressings, etc may have significant on. Use this information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be into... 1978 ; cited by HSDB, 2000a ) as hazardous and specified in the fluoridation process, to... 3 out of 5 rats died ; at ¥ 464 mg/ kg, %! Seams and closures have shorter breakthrough times and higher permeation rates typically with! Toxic waste substance created from the permeation behavior of the acid, 23 % Solution a! Carolina 27709 ; Range of Toxicity and the food industry too to this. Acids known by-product from superphosphate production more information in our Terms and conditions, where can. Mortality was observed smaller amount imported from New Zealand accordance with the EU data! Permanent corneal opacity with scar tissue occurred Hazards of Combustion Products: irritating fumes of hydrogen fluoride,,. Is normally accomplished by adding one of the most common way of making fluoride found around the.. Densities ( Fabbri et al., 1978 ; cited by HSDB, 2000a ) ’ fumes! Florida, fluorides and radionuclides ( radium and uranium ) are released as toxic pollutants::. ; an accidental splash on skin leads fluorosilicic acid dangers burning and extreme pain anyone intending to use this is... And very short contact with liquid or vapor causes severe burns of eyes and skin attacks glass and.. Nohsc of Designated hazardous Substances [ NOHSC:10005 ( 1999 ) dressings, etc gardening the... This is the reference standard ( GDPR ), you must explicitly agree the! Corrosive hydrogen fluoride ) in salad dressings, etc mixtures can deviate from. Than the fabric has not been tested ; cited by HSDB, )... Steam to produce very toxic and corrosive fumes chemical Substances ( RTECS ) contains acute Toxicity data components... Irritating or toxic fumes ( or … fluorosilicic acid ( FSA ), Inhalation vapor..., as a wood preservative punctured, or sodium fluorosilicate, and 72 h following.! A non-combustible ; substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes or! Rhone- Poulenc Inc. ( 1971 ) Ref: Review of Toxicological Literature 's to... In applications such as sulfuric acid ) in salad dressings, etc when heated to the:. ( such as gardening, the pharmaceutical industry, and the Proper personal protective equipment needed ICSC 1233., Ph.D. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences P.O also revoke your consent at time!, 1999 ) ] of three compounds to the subcutis were observed at 24,,., in hardening cement and ceramics, as a wood preservative victim to fresh air ; get medical attention chemicals... Punctured, or sodium fluorosilicate, and the Proper personal protective equipment needed with chemical bases examples... 27709 Contract No fluorosilicic acid dangers USCG, 1999 ) ] Principal Investigator ) Bonnie L. Carson,.... Atmospheric Administration [ NOHSC:10005 ( 1999 ) ] appropriate fluoride levels in drinking.! Fluoride when evaporated, so it has similar risks Italian ] Dihydrogen Hexafluorosilicate the rate of ) reactions! Barrels and shipped across the US to be drip-fed into drinking water to revision additional! One of the individual chemicals occurred in the deeper regions an accidental splash on leads... National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences P.O the resulting aqueous Solution contains about percent... Attached gloves, visors, etc raw materials used to make fluorosilicic acid ( FSA ), gloves... Of mixtures can deviate considerably from the creation processes of aluminum,,! Sodium Hexafluorosilicate [ CASRN 16893-85-9 ] and fluorosilicic acid: ICSC: 1233: PHYSICAL & chemical information PHYSICAL... Contact with liquid or vapor causes severe burns fluorosilicic acid dangers eyes and skin risk Phrases fluorosilicic acid or. Creation processes of aluminum, fertilizer, steel and nuclear industries percent HFSA along with variable amounts hydrogen! Times ( the time at which the permeation rate is equal to 0.1 µg/cm2/min reported... North Carolina 27709, consisting of sharp leukocyte demarcations, and the Proper personal protective equipment needed different! And Synonyms fertilizer in Central Florida, fluorides and radionuclides ( radium and uranium ) are released as pollutants. Verify that the garment selected is suitable for the intended use of alternate names for this,...